Identificacion of MRI-based psychosis subtypes: Replication and refinement

TitleIdentificacion of MRI-based psychosis subtypes: Replication and refinement
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsPlanchuelo-Gómez, Á., A. Lubeiro, P. Núñez-Novo, J. Gomez-Pilar, R. de Luis-García, P. del Valle, Ó. Martín-Santiago, A. Pérez-Escudero, and V. Molina
JournalProgress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
KeywordsBiotypes, bipolar disorder, Cortical thickness, Curvature, schizophrenia, Subtypes

The identification of the cerebral substrates of psychoses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is likely hampered by its biological heterogeneity, which may contribute to the low replication of results in the field. In this study we aimed to replicate in a completely new sample and supplement the results of a previous study with additional data on this topic. In the aforementioned study we identified a schizophrenia cluster characterized by high mean cortical curvature and low cortical thickness, subcortical hypometabolism and progressive negative symptoms. Here, we have used magnetic resonance images from 61 schizophrenia and 28 bipolar patients, as well as 51 healthy controls and a cluster analysis to search for possible subgroups primarily characterized by cerebral structural data. Diffusion tensor imaging (fractional anisotropy, FA), cognition, clinical data and electroencephalographic (EEG) modulation during a P300 task were used to validate the possible clusters. Two clusters of patients were identified. The first cluster (29 schizophrenia and 18 bipolar patients) showed decreased cortical thickness and area values, as well as lower subcortical volumes and higher cortical curvature in some regions, as compared to the second cluster. This first cluster also showed decreased FA in frontal lobe connections and worse cognitive performance. Although this cluster also showed longer illness duration, there were first episode patients in both clusters and treatment doses and types were not different between clusters. Both clusters of patients showed decreased EEG task-related modulation. In conclusion, our data give additional support to a distinct biologically based cluster encompassing schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients with cortical and subcortical alterations, hampered cortical connectivity and lower cognitive performance.